Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Learn the different common spellings of long vowel phonemes.
• Learn the different ways in which vowels can be pronounced,e.g. how, low; apple, apron.
• Apply knowledge of phonemes and spelling patterns in writing independently.
• Secure the spelling of high frequency words and common irregular words.
• Identify syllables and split familiar compound words into parts.
• Spell words with common prefixes and suffixes, e.g. un-, dis-, -ful, -ly.
• Build and use collections of interesting and significant words.
• Discuss the meaning of unfamiliar words encountered in reading.
• Choose interesting words and phrases, e.g. in describing people and places.
Grammar and punctuation
• Begin to read with fluency and expression, taking some notice of punctuation, including speech marks.
• Read and respond to question words, e.g. what, where, when, who, why.
• Write in clear sentences using capital letters, full stops and question marks.
• Use past and present tenses accurately but not always consistently.
• Use mainly simple and compound sentences, with and/but used to connect ideas. Because may begin to be used in a complex
• Begin to vary sentence openings, e.g. with simple adverbs.
• Use a variety of simple organisational devices in non-fiction, e.g. headings, captions.
• Begin to re-read own writing for sense and accuracy.
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 2:
Fiction and poetry: real life stories, traditional tales from different cultures, different stories by the same author, longer stories, poetry
Non-fiction: non-chronological report, instructions, explanation, reference texts.
Fiction and poetry
• Extend the range of common words recognised on sight.
• Use phonics as the main method of tackling unfamiliar words.
• Read aloud with increased accuracy, fluency and expression.
• Identify and describe story settings and characters, recognising that they may be from different times and places.
• Predict story endings.
• Make simple inferences from the words on the page, e.g. about feelings
• Talk about what happens at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a story.
• Comment on some vocabulary choices, e.g. adjectives.
• Begin to develop likes and dislikes in reading.
• Read poems and comment on words and sounds, rhyme and rhythm.
• Read and follow simple instructions, e.g. in a recipe.
• Locate words by initial letter in simple dictionaries, glossaries and indexes.
• Find answers to questions by reading a section of text.
• Find factual information from different formats, e.g. charts, labelled diagrams.
• Identify general features of known text types.
• Show some awareness that texts have different purposes.
• Explore a variety of non-fiction texts on screen.
• Develop stories with a setting, characters and a sequence of events.
• Structure a story with a beginning, middle and end.
• Link ideas in sections, grouped by content
• Find alternatives to and/then in developing a narrative and connecting ideas.
• Write with a variety of sentence types.
• Use the structures of familiar poems and stories in developing own writing.
• Begin to use dialogue in stories.
• Use the language of time, e.g. suddenly, after that.
• Choose some interesting words and phrases, e.g. in describing people and places.
• Write simple evaluations of books read.
• Write instructions and recount events and experiences.
• Use features of chosen text type.
• Use simple non-fiction texts as a model for writing.
• Make simple notes from a section of non-fiction texts, e.g. listing key words.
• Form letters correctly and consistently.
• Practise handwriting patterns and the joining of letters.
Speaking and listening
• Recount experiences and explore possibilities.
• Explain plans and ideas, extending them in the light of discussion.
• Articulate clearly so that others can hear.
• Vary talk and expression to gain and hold the listener’s attention.
• Show awareness of the listener by including relevant details.
• Attempt to express ideas precisely, using a growing vocabulary.
• Listen carefully and respond appropriately, asking questions of others.
• Demonstrate ‘attentive listening’ and engage with another speaker.
• Extend experiences and ideas through role-play.
• Begin to be aware of ways in which speakers vary talk, for example the use of more formal vocabulary and tone of voice.
• Show awareness that speakers use a variety of ways of speaking in different situations and try out different ways of speaking.