Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Hear, read and write initial letter sounds.
• Know the name and most common sound associated with every letter in the English alphabet.
• Identify separate sounds (phonemes) within words, which may be represented by more than one letter, e.g. ‘th’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’.
• Use knowledge of sounds to read and write single syllable words with short vowels.
• Blend to read, and segment to spell, words with final and initial adjacent consonants, e.g. b-l, n-d.
• Begin to learn common spellings of long vowel phonemes, e.g. ‘ee’, ‘ai’, ‘oo’.
• Use knowledge of sounds to write simple regular words, and to attempt other words.
• Spell familiar common words accurately, drawing on sight vocabulary.
• Use rhyme and relate this to spelling patterns.
• Recognise common word endings, e.g. -s, -ed and -ing.
Grammar and punctuation
• Pause at full stops when reading.
• Identify sentences in a text.
• Know that a capital letter is used for I, for proper nouns and for the start of a sentence.
• Mark some sentence endings with a full stop.
• Write sentence-like structures which may be joined by and.
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 1:
Fiction and poetry: real life stories, traditional tales from different cultures, fantasy stories, poetry and plays.
Non-fiction: non-chronological report, simple recount, instructions.
Fiction and poetry
• Join in with reading familiar, simple stories and poems. Demonstrate an understanding that one spoken word corresponds with one written word.
• Know that in English, print is read from left to right and top to bottom.
• Read a range of common words on sight.
• Use phonic knowledge to read decodable words and to attempt to sound out some elements of unfamiliar words.
• Read aloud from simple books independently.
• Anticipate what happens next in a story.
• Talk about events in a story and make simple inferences about characters and events to show understanding.
• Recognise story elements, e.g. beginning, middle and end.
• Retell stories, with some appropriate use of story language.
• Talk about significant aspects of a story’s language, e.g. repetitive refrain, rhyme, patterned language.
• Enjoy a range of books, discussing preferences.
• Make links to own experiences.
• Learn and recite simple poems.
• Join in and extend rhymes and refrains, playing with language patterns.
• Read labels, lists and captions to find information.
• Know the parts of a book, e.g. title page, contents.
• Show awareness that texts for different purposes look different, e.g. use of photographs, diagrams, etc.
• Read and talk about own writing.
• Write simple storybooks with sentences to caption pictures.
• Write a sequence of sentences retelling a familiar story or recounting an experience.
• Begin to use some formulaic language, e.g. Once upon a time.
• Compose and write a simple sentence with a capital letter and a full stop.
• Use relevant vocabulary.
• Write for a purpose using some basic features of text type.
• Write simple information texts with labels, captions, lists, questions and instructions for a purpose.
• Record answers to questions, e.g. as lists, charts.
• Develop a comfortable and efficient pencil grip.
• Form letters correctly.
Speaking and listening
• Speak clearly and choose words carefully to express feelings and ideas when speaking of matters of immediate interest.
• Converse audibly with friends, teachers and other adults.
• Show some awareness of the listener through non-verbal communication.
• Answer questions and explain further when asked.
• Speak confidently to a group to share an experience.
• Take turns in speaking.
• Listen to others and respond appropriately.
• Listen carefully to questions and instructions.
• Engage in imaginative play, enacting simple characters or situations.
• Note that people speak in different ways for different purposes and meanings.