Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Use effective strategies to tackle blending unfamiliar words to read, including sounding out, separating into syllables, using analogy, identifying known suffixes and prefixes, using context.
• Use and spell compound words.
• Know irregular forms of common verbs.
• Use effective strategies to tackle segmenting unfamiliar words to spell, including segmenting into individual sounds, separating into syllables, using analogy, identifying known suffixes and prefixes, applying known spelling rules, visual memory, mnemonics.
• Learn rules for adding –ing, –ed, –s to verbs.
• Extend earlier work on prefixes and suffixes.
• Explore words that have the same spelling but different meanings (homonyms), e.g. form, wave.
• Use a dictionary or electronic means to find the spelling and meaning of words.
• Organise words or information alphabetically using first two letters.
• Identify misspelt words in own writing and keep individual spelling logs.
• Consider how choice of words can heighten meaning.
• Infer the meaning of unknown words from the context.
• Explore vocabulary for introducing and concluding dialogue, e.g. said, asked.
• Generate synonyms for high frequency words, e.g. big, little, good.
Grammar and punctuation
• Use knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read age-appropriate texts with fluency, understanding and expression.
• Recognise the use of the apostrophe to mark omission in shortened words, e.g. can’t, don’t.
• Collect examples of nouns, verbs and adjectives, and use the terms appropriately.
• Identify pronouns and understand their function in a sentence.
• Understand that verbs are necessary for meaning in a sentence.
• Understand pluralisation and use the terms ‘singular’ and ‘plural’.
Grammar and punctuation (continued)
• Maintain accurate use of capital letters and full stops in showing sentences.
• Learn the basic conventions of speech punctuation and begin to use speech marks.
• Use question marks, exclamation marks, and commas in lists.
• Continue to improve consistency in the use of tenses.
• Ensure grammatical agreement of pronouns and verbs in using standard English.
• Use a wider variety of sentence types including simple, compound and some complex sentences.
• Begin to vary sentence openings, e.g. with simple adverbs.
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 3:
Fiction and poetry: real life stories, myths and legends, adventure stories, poetry and plays.
Non-fiction: letters, reports, instructions, reference texts.
Fiction and poetry
• Sustain the reading of 48 and 64 page books, noting how a text is organised into sections or chapters.
• Read aloud with expression to engage the listener.
• Answer questions with some reference to single points in a text.
• Begin to infer meanings beyond the literal, e.g. about motives and character.
• Identify different types of stories and typical story themes.
• Identify the main points or gist of a text.
• Consider words that make an impact, e.g. adjectives and powerful verbs.
• Understand and use the terms ‘fact’, ‘fiction’ and ‘non-fiction’.
• Read a range of story, poetry and information books and begin to make links between them.
• Read and comment on different books by the same author.
• Read play-scripts and dialogue, with awareness of different voices.
• Practise learning and reciting poems.
• Scan a passage to find specific information and answer questions.
• Locate information in non-fiction texts using contents page and index.
• Read and follow instructions to carry out an activity.
• Consider ways that information is set out on page and on screen, e.g. lists, charts, bullet points.
• Locate books by classification.
• Identify the main purpose of a text.
• Use ICT sources to locate simple information.
• Write first-person accounts and descriptions based on observation.
• Develop descriptions of settings in stories.
• Write portraits of characters.
• Write simple play-scripts based on reading.
• Plan main points as a structure for story writing.
• Begin to organise writing in sections or paragraphs in extended stories.
• Develop range of adverbials to signal the relationship between events.
• Use reading as a model for writing dialogue.
• Write and perform poems, attending to the sound of words.
• Choose and compare words to strengthen the impact of writing, including noun phrases.
• Write book reviews summarising what a book is about.
• Establish purpose for writing, using features and style based on model texts.
• Write letters, notes and messages.
• Make a record of information drawn from a text, e.g. by completing a chart.
• Ensure consistency in the size and proportion of letters and the spacing of words.
• Practise joining letters in handwriting.
• Build up handwriting speed, fluency and legibility.
• Use IT to write, edit and present work.
Speaking and listening
• Speak clearly and confidently in a range of contexts, including longer speaking turns.
• Adapt tone of voice, use of vocabulary and non-verbal features for different audiences.
• Take turns in discussion, building on what others have said.
• Listen and respond appropriately to others’ views and opinions.
• Listen and remember a sequence of instructions.
• Practise to improve performance when reading aloud.
• Begin to adapt movement to create a character in drama.
• Develop sensitivity to ways that others express meaning in their talk and non-verbal communication.